아프리카 도시화 특성분석과 인프라 협력방안 (An Analysis of Urbanization in Africa and Its Implication for Korea's Cooperation in Infrastructure Development)
226 Pages Posted: 7 Apr 2017
Date Written: December 30, 2016
Korean Abstract: 아프리카 국가들은 지속가능한 도시개발을 국가발전 전략의 핵심으로 다루고 있는데, 도시개발정책, 물적·제도적 인프라 정비, 신도시 개발, 도시생산기반 구축 등을 주요 골자로 하고 있다. 주요 거점도시를 연결하는 범(汎) 아프리카 차원의 인프라 개발 프로젝트 추진 역시 탄력을 받고 있는데, 개발회랑 (development corridor) 구축과 이를 통한 역내 경제통합을 목표로 하고 있다. 이러한 아프리카의 도시화 현상은 우리에게 개발협력과 경제협력의 기회를 동시에 제공해주고 있다. 본 연구는 아프리카의 경제·사회적 발전패러다임 변화 중 하나인 도시화 문제를 다루는 것으로, 아프리카의 도시화 현상을 심층적으로 분석하고, 인프라 분야에서 한국의 협력방안을 모색하고자 하였다.
English Abstract: Urbanization refers to a demographic change where the population residing in urban areas increases. Africa's urbanization is happening at an unprecedented speed as its urban population is expected to increase from its current level of 40% to over 50% by 2030. Generally speaking, urbanization leads to economic development through the agglomeration of factors of production, economies of scale, reduction of transaction costs and productivity advancement, attraction of domestic and foreign investment, and technology absorption. In fact, urbanization can be seen as the cradle of industrialization and economic development. The compressed and rapid growth of Asian countries such as Korea and China is in great part due to the development of urban areas. However, the cities of Africa seem to create "a new form of poverty" rather than acting as a driving force for development. Gleaser (2011) and others determine the favorable functions of urbanization based on the development theory of Arthur Lewis and Simon Kuznets, but also mention the vicious cycle of development due to "urbanization of poverty" or "geographical concentration of poverty." Africa is a case of the latter, where the lack of physical and institutional infrastructures is exacerbated by the population increase, thus leading to the deterioration of cities.
Nevertheless, Africa's urbanization is gaining the spotlight as cities provide a geographical space that produces the most economic value and function as a powerhouse for economic growth. In fact, because cities create 80% of the global GDP it is difficult to find a country that has achieved attractive economic development without urbanization. Obviously urbanization itself does not necessarily mean industrialization or economic development but it certainly functions as an engine for economic growth and transformation. African states underline sustainable urban development in their national development strategies, which include urban development policies, physical and institutional infrastructure servicing, new town development, urban production base as the essentials. A Pan-African infrastructure project that connects important point cities to create a development corridor and encourage intra-economic integration is under progress.
Note: Downloadable document is in Korean
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation