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Sex Quotas and Burkini Bans

22 Pages Posted: 24 Apr 2017  

Darren Rosenblum

Pace Law School

Date Written: April 22, 2017


This Essay recounts how feminist theorists and activists managed to write their ideals into the fabric of French law and culture, and how non-feminists began to appropriate those ideals. Parité, the 2000 law that requires half of all candidates for public office be women, saw French feminists first engineer a change in French universalism to respect sex difference; although not wholly successful, Parité advanced women’s political inclusion. Then, like a drop of water in a pond, these feminist ideas disappeared in plain sight: they became intrinsic to French state norms and public values. As they became woven into state norms, however, politicians began to use them to promote exclusions: first excluding Muslims from full participation in the Republic with veil and burqa bans; then supporting exclusions of sex and class with a corporate board quota (CBQ); most recently feminist ideas have been called upon to exclude French Muslims with proposed burkini bans.

Suggested Citation

Rosenblum, Darren, Sex Quotas and Burkini Bans (April 22, 2017). Tulane Law Review, Vol. 92, 2017. Available at SSRN:

Darren Rosenblum (Contact Author)

Pace Law School ( email )

78 North Broadway
White Plains, NY 10603
United States
914 422 4663 (Phone)

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