Job Creation Schemes in Turbulent Times

45 Pages Posted: 11 May 2017

See all articles by Annette Bergemann

Annette Bergemann

University of Bristol - Department of Economics; IZA Institute of Labor Economics; IFAU - Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation

Laura Pohlan

ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research; Institute for Employment Research (IAB)

Arne Uhlendorff


Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: April 2017


This paper analyzes the impact of job creation schemes (JCSs) on job search outcomes in the context of the turbulent East German labor market in the aftermath of the German reunification. High job destruction characterized the economic environment. JCSs were heavily used in order to cushion this development. Using data from 1990-1999 and building upon the timing-of-events approach, we estimate multivariate discrete time duration models taking selection based on both observed and unobserved heterogeneity into account. Our results indicate that participation in JCSs increases the unemployment duration mainly due to locking-in effects. However, twelve months after the program start the significantly negative impact on the job finding probability vanishes. We find evidence for effect heterogeneity. Our results suggest that female and highly skilled participants leave unemployment quicker than other groups, which results in highly skilled women benefiting from participation. However, we find no significant impact on post-unemployment employment stability. Our results are robust to allowing for random treatment effects. Also taking into account endogenous participation in training programs, endogenous censoring, or multiple treatment effects do not change the results.

Keywords: active labor market policy, job creation schemes, unemployment duration, employment stability, timing-of-events model, East Germany, transition economy, structural change

JEL Classification: C41, J64, J68

Suggested Citation

Bergemann, Annette and Pohlan, Laura and Pohlan, Laura and Uhlendorff, Arne, Job Creation Schemes in Turbulent Times (April 2017). ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 17-021, Available at SSRN: or

Annette Bergemann (Contact Author)

University of Bristol - Department of Economics ( email )

8 Woodland Road
Bristol BS8 ITN
United Kingdom

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072

IFAU - Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation ( email )

Box 513
751 20 Uppsala

Laura Pohlan

ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research ( email )

L 7,1
Mannheim, 68161

Institute for Employment Research (IAB) ( email )

Regensburger Str. 104
Nuremberg, 90478

Arne Uhlendorff

Independent ( email )

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