Vygotsky and the National Culture: Contradictory Relations
5th International Spring MT Conference Barcelona 2017, 27th to 28th May 2017 Barcelona, Spain
Posted: 23 May 2017
Date Written: May 21, 2017
The academic attention of Vygotsky to the genetic and holistic approach for the understanding of the personality of a child is dictated primarily by the desire to explain certain phenomena and therefore evaluate them as significant. He understand of universe as the single and monobasic from structural and systemic perspective (such categories as nature, history, human society etc.), understanding of universe (and, consequently, of human behavior) as the rational phenomenon, the vision of one of gnoseology as adequate for the solving of scientific problems are the main features of Vygotsky’s scientific world outlook. These features of the particular worldview of Vygotsky determine, on the one hand, his not capability for him to consider ontology behavior (development) of something national. Instead, he used historical and cultural discourse based on Marxist ideological dogmas. Such ideas include the scientist’s desire to rationalize (explain) substantially all phenomena of human behavior and the human soul. Such theories as for the idea of “sobornoi” person of I.V. Kireyevski (1988) and A.S. Khomyakov (1992), the idea of personality who finds himself in the true "common deal" of N.F. Fedorov (1994), the idea of the person seeking the living unity of all in all of V. Soloviev (1994), the idea of the person seeking the fullness of spiritual life of S. Frank(1994), S. Bulgakov(1994), P. Florensky(1994), idea of All-One person L.P. Karsavin(1994) were not expressed in Vygotsky’s works. Among these ideas, there are ideas of "determinism" of human by cultural society about liberty as the knowledge of necessity. Such problem as the consideration of human as a historical and cultural phenomenon is absent in pedagogical theories (for example, the learning theory of L.V. Zankov (1988), V.V.Davydov(2002), etc; theory of dialogue of cultures of Bibler B.C. (1992)). Vygotsky interprets human development as the phenomenon, which ontologically isn’t connected with the historical and cultural existence of a person. L.S. Vygotsky tried to response the major questions of his age (the era of the late XIX - early XX century in the history of Russia). Following Russian psychological tradition, he has revealed the logic of cultural development of human (universal aspect). Scholar has developed the idea of "sign and the use of his implementation" as determining the development of higher (cultural) forms of behavior (1983, p.116-117). Thus, according to L.S. Vygotsky, human behavior and national culture are not closely interconnected. It is interesting, that instead of this Russain reflection, Vygotsky is perceived in the West as a founder of the cultural-historical school (while for the Russians he is the founder of historical materialism school). We think it is important to highlight, that Vygotsky interpretation in Russia is essentially different.
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