Task Selection and Workload: A Focus on Completing Easy Tasks Hurts Long-Term Performance
36 Pages Posted: 27 Jun 2017
Date Written: June 25, 2017
How individuals manage, organize, and complete their tasks is central to operations management. Recent research in operations focuses on how under conditions of increasing workload individuals can increase their service time, up to a point, in order to complete work more quickly. As the number of tasks increases, however, workers may also manage their workload by a different process – task selection. Drawing on research on workload, individual discretion, and behavioral decision making we theorize and then test that under conditions of increased workload individuals may choose to complete easier tasks in order to manage their load. We label this behavior Task Completion Bias (TCB). Using two years of data from a hospital emergency department we find support for TCB and also show that it improves short-term productivity. However, although it improves performance in the short-term we find that an overreliance on this task selection strategy hurts performance – as measured both by speed and revenue – in the long run. We then turn to the lab to replicate conceptually the task selection effect and show that it occurs due to the positive feelings individuals get from task completion. These findings provide an alternative mechanism for the workload-speedup effect from the literature. We also discuss implications for both research and the practice of operations in building systems to help people succeed in both the short and long run.
Keywords: Healthcare, Knowledge Work, Decision Making, Discretion, Workload
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