Upstream, Downstream: Diffusion and Impacts of the Universal Product Code
75 Pages Posted: 1 Jul 2017 Last revised: 30 Apr 2020
Date Written: November 10, 2017
We describe four new lines of inquiry added to the 2017 Economic Census regarding (i) retail health clinics, (ii) management practices in health care services, (iii) self-service in retail and service industries, and (iv) water use in manufacturing and mining industries. These were proposed by economists from the U.S. Census Bureau's Center for Economic Studies in order to fill data gaps in current Census Bureau products concerning the U.S. economy. The new content addresses such issues as the rise in importance of health care and its complexity, the adoption of automation technologies, and the importance of measuring water, a critical input to many manufacturing and mining industries.
Keywords: Universal Product Code, Barcode, Supply Chain, Network Effects, Trademarks
JEL Classification: O33, L11, L60, L81
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation