Categorical Inequality in Black and White: Linking Disproportionality across Multiple Educational Outcomes
61 Pages Posted: 7 Aug 2017 Last revised: 1 Sep 2019
Date Written: August 3, 2017
We characterize the extent to which black-white gaps for multiple educational outcomes are linked across school districts in the United States. Gaps in disciplinary action, grade-level retention, classification into special education and Gifted and Talented, and Advanced Placement course taking are large in magnitude and correlated. Racial differences in family income and parent education are strikingly consistent predictors of these gaps, and districts with large gaps in one outcome are likely to have large gaps in another. Socioeconomic and segregation variables explain 1.7 to 3.5 times more variance for achievement relative to non-achievement outcomes. Systemic patterns of racial socioeconomic inequality drive inequalities across multiple educational outcomes; however, discretionary policies at local levels are more influential for non-achievement outcomes.
Keywords: Black-White Inequality, Achievement Gaps, Disproportionality, Discipline, Special Education, Gifted and Talented, Advanced Placement
JEL Classification: I24
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation