Categorical Inequality in Black and White: Linking Disproportionality across Multiple Educational Outcomes

61 Pages Posted: 7 Aug 2017 Last revised: 1 Sep 2019

See all articles by Kenneth Shores

Kenneth Shores

Pennsylvania State University

Ha Eun Kim

University of Pennsylvania - Graduate School of Education

Mela Still

University of Pennsylvania - Graduate School of Education

Date Written: August 3, 2017

Abstract

We characterize the extent to which black-white gaps for multiple educational outcomes are linked across school districts in the United States. Gaps in disciplinary action, grade-level retention, classification into special education and Gifted and Talented, and Advanced Placement course taking are large in magnitude and correlated. Racial differences in family income and parent education are strikingly consistent predictors of these gaps, and districts with large gaps in one outcome are likely to have large gaps in another. Socioeconomic and segregation variables explain 1.7 to 3.5 times more variance for achievement relative to non-achievement outcomes. Systemic patterns of racial socioeconomic inequality drive inequalities across multiple educational outcomes; however, discretionary policies at local levels are more influential for non-achievement outcomes.

Keywords: Black-White Inequality, Achievement Gaps, Disproportionality, Discipline, Special Education, Gifted and Talented, Advanced Placement

JEL Classification: I24

Suggested Citation

Shores, Kenneth and Kim, Ha Eun and Still, Mela, Categorical Inequality in Black and White: Linking Disproportionality across Multiple Educational Outcomes (August 3, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3013214 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3013214

Kenneth Shores (Contact Author)

Pennsylvania State University ( email )

Health and Human Development
University Park, PA 16802
United States
6505804655 (Phone)

Ha Eun Kim

University of Pennsylvania - Graduate School of Education ( email )

Pittsburgh, PA 15260
United States

Mela Still

University of Pennsylvania - Graduate School of Education ( email )

Pittsburgh, PA 15260
United States

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