Gender and Multidimensional Poverty in Nicaragua: An Individual-Based Approach

72 Pages Posted: 11 Aug 2017 Last revised: 20 Mar 2018

See all articles by José Espinoza-Delgado

José Espinoza-Delgado

University of Goettingen (Gottingen)

Stephan Klasen

University of Goettingen (Gottingen) - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute); IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Date Written: February 15, 2018

Abstract

Most existing multidimensional poverty measures use the household as the unit of analysis so that the multidimensional poverty condition of the household is equated with the multidimensional poverty condition of all its members. For this reason, household-based poverty measures ignore the intra-household inequalities and are gender-insensitive. Gender equality, however, is at the center of the sustainable development, as it has been emphasized by the Goal 5 of the SDGs: “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls” (UN, 2015, p. 14); therefore, individual-based measures are needed in order to track the progress in achieving this goal. Consequently, in this paper, we contribute to the literature on multidimensional poverty and gender inequality by proposing an individual-based multidimensional poverty measure for Nicaragua and estimate the gender differentials in the incidence, intensity, and inequality of multidimensional poverty. Overall, we find that in Nicaragua, the gender gaps in multidimensional poverty are lower than 5%, and poverty does not seem to be feminized. However, the inequality among the multi-dimensionally poor is clearly feminized, especially among adults, and women are living in very intense poverty when compared with men. We also find that adding a dimension (employment, domestic work, and social protection) under which women face higher deprivation leads to larger estimates of the incidence, intensity, and inequality of women’s poverty. In this new context, gender gaps become much more substantial, and poverty and inequality are unambiguously feminized. Finally, we find evidence that challenges the notion that female-headed households are worse off than those led by males in terms of poverty.

Keywords: multidimensional poverty measurement, intra-household inequality, gender gaps in poverty, Latin America, Nicaragua

JEL Classification: I3, I32, D1, D13, D6, D63, O5, O54

Suggested Citation

Espinoza-Delgado, José and Klasen, Stephan, Gender and Multidimensional Poverty in Nicaragua: An Individual-Based Approach (February 15, 2018). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3016287 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3016287

José Espinoza-Delgado (Contact Author)

University of Goettingen (Gottingen) ( email )

Platz der Gottinger Sieben 3
Gottingen, D-37073
Germany

Stephan Klasen

University of Goettingen (Gottingen) - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration ( email )

Platz der Goettinger Sieben 3
Goettingen, 37073
Germany
+49-551-397303 (Phone)
+49-551-397302 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: www.vwl.wiso.uni-goettingen.de/klasen.html

CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)

Poschinger Str. 5
Munich, DE-81679
Germany

HOME PAGE: http://www.CESifo.de

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

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