Strategic Science and the Failure of Peer Review: The Universe Is a Clock, Not a Cloud

30 Pages Posted: 12 Sep 2017 Last revised: 4 Dec 2017

Date Written: September 6, 2017


The paper argues two distinct, but crucially linked points then illustrates the argument by applying it to the interpretation of quantum physics. Science is knowledge. All knowledge is created by people. A valid theory of epistemology, itself knowledge, can only be built from within a general theory of psychology meeting the standards of intellectual rigor of strategic science. Therefore, any science in relation to the object of that science can only be a detail of how all knowledge relates to the object of that knowledge. It follows that science can only be interpreted through a general theory of psychology that offers understanding of the relationship between human knowledge and the object of that knowledge.

Second, the true implications of these simple statements are only driven home within the intellectual quality process of strategic science.

Peer review is an academic failure, driven by history , takes no account of intellectual innovation, and locks intellectual judgement into the past to a debilitating degree. The consequence of adhering to peer review has been the steady decline in academic credibility. Specifically, when improved intellectual quality control process of strategic science is imposed on the historical interpretation of quantum mechanics, offering much greater intellectual rigor, then the inadequacy of historical thinking is exposed.

Physics is knowledge. From the above discussion, it follows that interpretation of physics is a strictly a problem of epistemology. The accuracy and predictive power of the Schrodinger wave equation and all derivatives leaves no question that psi, Ψ, is correctly interpreted as a probability function. The question is what does that mean for our understanding of the external world?

Bohr’s ‘operational ’ view of science fails advanced standards of intellectual rigor. The intellectual position from within which this paper written is the only position meeting the criteria of strategic science and is therefore the only valid intellectual framework from within which quantum mechanics can be interpreted. It follows, all historical discussion on the interpretation of quantum physics must be dismissed as speculative guesswork, not science, since all such historical discussion lacks the intellectual foundation to resolve the question. Einstein’s instincts were correct. The prudent judgement is the universe is deterministic, regular, a clock not a cloud.

Keywords: interpretation of quantum physics, human epistemological relationship with the exrternal world, determinism

JEL Classification: Y80, Z19

Suggested Citation

Little, Graham, Strategic Science and the Failure of Peer Review: The Universe Is a Clock, Not a Cloud (September 6, 2017). Available at SSRN: or

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