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Reconsidering the Merger Process: Approval Patterns, Timeline, and Shareholders' Role

79 Pages Posted: 2 Oct 2017 Last revised: 6 Oct 2017

Matteo Gatti

Rutgers Law School

Date Written: September 20, 2017


Shareholder approval in mergers generally takes a long time, but is it necessary? This article finds that in the context of mergers the approval requirement is not nearly as valuable a procedure as we might expect. I analyze shareholder approval patterns (target side) in all domestic mergers with a Russell 3000 target company in the 2006-2015 period. Looking at data on voting outcomes, I note a very low number of mergers that are rejected by shareholders, as well as significantly high approval percentages. Instead of concluding that voting is mere rubber-stamping by shareholders, voting positively affects mergers through the expectation that shareholders will turn down undesirable deals. The voting requirement signals a credible threat to corporate planners that undesirable deals will be rejected; as a result, such deals are in fact rarely presented to shareholders in the first place (deal filtering effect of voting). That same dynamic contributes to higher premiums than we would have experienced if a threat of rejection were absent (premium effect of voting). However, the data also shows that voting comes with drawbacks, the most significant being the delay in deal completion, which can jeopardize a company’s operations and put deal certainty at risk. If the beneficial role of shareholder voice in mergers stems from the pressure on corporate planners generated the credible threat of rejection embedded in the vote, I suggest to find alternative ways to exert such pressure without incurring all the costs that voting currently implies. To that end, this article sketches three possible policy solutions, ranging from impactful (vote-on-demand and randomized approval, both to be opted into by companies in lieu of the current voting regime) to more moderate (speeding up the timetable by revising the SEC review process of merger securities filings and state corporate laws).

Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions, Mergers, Tender Offers, Shareholders, Directors, Shareholder Voting; Shareholder Meeting

JEL Classification: G30, G34, K22

Suggested Citation

Gatti, Matteo, Reconsidering the Merger Process: Approval Patterns, Timeline, and Shareholders' Role (September 20, 2017). Hastings Law Journal, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN:

Matteo Gatti (Contact Author)

Rutgers Law School ( email )

United States

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