Characterization of Village Chicken Production System in Jimma and Ilu Aba Bora Zones, South Western Ethiopia
16 Pages Posted: 3 Oct 2017
Date Written: March 13, 2017
The study was conducted in highland, midland and lowland agro-ecological zones of Jimma and Ilu Aba Bora zones selected districts the objectives were to characterize village chicken production and identify the major constraints. A total of 240 chicken rearing smallholder farmers were interviewed to collect the required information using a semi-structured questionnaire. The chicken production system in the study areas was scavenging with regular supplementation of the little amount of feed. The average flock size of chicken per household was 10.05. About 33%, 55% and 12 % of smallholder farmers were provided feed for their chickens once, twice and three times a day respectively. Most of the farmers 74% of the respondents do not have a separate house but provided night time rest in different places: in the living house 24.6%, kitchen 29.1, veranda 15.4 and animal barn 5%. The average age at first mating for cockerel and pullet were reported 6.02 and 6.15 months respectively. The average age of hen at first egg laying was 6.74 months. The overall average number of clutches was 3.64 times per year per hen. The length of the single clutch was 3.4 weeks. The average numbers of egg production per clutch were 13.19 and number of eggs set to a broody hen for incubation was 11.4%. The average hatchability of eggs and survival rate of chick up to 8 weeks were 79.4% and 47.7% respectively. All of the respondents in the study areas were not identify the specific name of the disease but reported the clinical signs. Most of the farmers (89.5%) were reported a high incidence of diseases occurs the wet season. About (91.7%) of the farmers were treated their sick chickens by using of traditional medicine. Farmers were reported different Predators such as black kite (29.2%), mongoose (28.8%), wild cat (20%), dog (7%), Cat (9.2%), Baboon (3.8%) and Fox (2%) which plays a role for chicken loss. Constraints in village chicken production system were prioritized the disease (35.8%), predators (18.8%), lack of veterinary services (17.9%), feed shortage (11.7%), lack of proper house (8.8%) and unstable prices (7%). Therefore, improvement should be need to design veterinary services, chicken management (feeding and housing) and identification and conservation of the best ecotype in the area. Finally, evaluation, demonstration and promotion of exotic chicken breeds that can fit the local feeding and management condition will be necessary.
Keywords: characterization, village chicken, production system, constraints
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