Heavy Metals Phyto-Assessment in Commonly Grown Vegetables: Water Spinach (I. aquatica) and Okra (A. esculentus)

SpringerPlus, Volume 5, Number 1, 2016; DOI 10.1186/s40064-016-2125-5

9 Pages Posted: 25 Oct 2017

See all articles by Chuck Chuan Ng

Chuck Chuan Ng

China-ASEAN College of Marine Sciences, Xiamen University Malaysia

Motior Rahman

University of Malaya (UM) - Institute of Biological Sciences

Amru Boyce

University of Malaya (UM) - Institute of Biological Sciences

Radzi Abas

University of Malaya (UM) - Department of Chemistry

Date Written: April 16, 2016

Abstract

The growth response, metal tolerance and phytoaccumulation properties of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were assessed under different contaminated spiked metals: control, 50 mg Pb/kg soil, 50 mg Zn/kg soil and 50 mg Cu/kg soil. The availability of Pb, Zn and Cu metals in both soil and plants were detected using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration and accumulation of heavy metals from soil to roots and shoots (edible parts) were evaluated in terms of translocation factor, accumulation factor and tolerance index. Okra recorded the highest accumulation of Pb (80.20 mg/kg) in its root followed by Zn in roots (35.70 mg/kg) and shoots (34.80 mg/kg) of water spinach, respectively. Different accumulation trends were observed with, Pb > Zn > Cu in okra and Zn > Pb > Cu in water spinach. Significant differences (p < 0.01) of Pb, Zn and Cu accumulation were found in both water spinach and okra cultivated among tested treatments. However, only the accumulation of Pb metal in the shoots of water spinach and okra exceeded the maximum permissible levels of the national Malaysian Food Act 1983 and Food Regulations 1985 (2006) as well as the international Codex Alimentarius Commission limits. This study has shown that both water spinach and okra have good potential as Pb and Zn phytoremediators.

Keywords: Water Spinach, Okra, Heavy Metal Accumulation, Contamination

Suggested Citation

Ng, Chuck Chuan and Rahman, Motior and Boyce, Amru and Abas, Radzi, Heavy Metals Phyto-Assessment in Commonly Grown Vegetables: Water Spinach (I. aquatica) and Okra (A. esculentus) (April 16, 2016). SpringerPlus, Volume 5, Number 1, 2016; DOI 10.1186/s40064-016-2125-5, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3058124

Chuck Chuan Ng (Contact Author)

China-ASEAN College of Marine Sciences, Xiamen University Malaysia ( email )

Malaysia

Motior Rahman

University of Malaya (UM) - Institute of Biological Sciences

Kuala Lumpur, 50603
Malaysia

Amru Boyce

University of Malaya (UM) - Institute of Biological Sciences ( email )

Kuala Lumpur, 50603
Malaysia

Radzi Abas

University of Malaya (UM) - Department of Chemistry ( email )

Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan 50603
Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan 50603
Malaysia

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