Tolerance Threshold and Phyto-Assessment of Cadmium and Lead in Vetiver Grass, Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash

Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2017; 44(4): 1367-1378

12 Pages Posted: 25 Oct 2017 Last revised: 17 Jun 2018

See all articles by Chuck Chuan Ng

Chuck Chuan Ng

Quest International University Perak, Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Biological Sciences; University of Malaya (UM)

Amru Boyce

University of Malaya (UM) - Institute of Biological Sciences

Motior Rahman

University of Malaya (UM) - Institute of Biological Sciences

Radzi Abas

University of Malaya (UM) - Department of Chemistry

Date Written: October 1, 2017

Abstract

Various types of plant species have been extensively used for heavy metals phyto-remediation without taking into consideration its tolerance threshold. In this study, Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash was evaluated under five different sets of contaminated spiked cadmium (5Cd, 10Cd, 50Cd, 100Cd and 150Cd mg/kg) and lead (50Pb, 100Pb, 200Pb, 400Pb and 800Pb mg/kg) concentration levels in soil. The growth performance, metal tolerance and phyto-assessment of Cd and Pb in the roots and tillers were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), biological transfer factor (BTF), biological accumulation coefficient (BAC) and metal uptake efficacy were used to determine the Cd and Pb translocation capability in Vetiver grass. Significantly higher (p<0.05) accumulation of Cd and Pb was recorded in the roots of all spiked treatments. Furthermore, strong and significantly positive correlations were exhibited between the increased levels of spiked heavy metal concentrations with both Cd (r=0.975) and Pb (r=0.952) accumulations. The results of this study showed Vetiver grass as an effective phyto-stabilizer for both Cd and Pb. Nevertheless, the growth of Vetiver grass was restricted when the tolerance threshold of 100 mg/kg (dry weight basis) Cd was exceeded in the contaminated soil.

Keywords: Heavy Metal, Spiked Metal, Phyto-Stabilizer, Vetiver Grass, Threshold

Suggested Citation

Ng, Chuck Chuan and Boyce, Amru and Rahman, Motior and Abas, Radzi, Tolerance Threshold and Phyto-Assessment of Cadmium and Lead in Vetiver Grass, Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash (October 1, 2017). Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2017; 44(4): 1367-1378 . Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3058156

Chuck Chuan Ng (Contact Author)

Quest International University Perak, Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Biological Sciences ( email )

Plaza Teh Teng Seng, 227
Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainun, Ipoh
Perak, Perak 30250
Malaysia
+60164626466 (Phone)

University of Malaya (UM) ( email )

Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan 50603
University of Malaya (UM)
Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan 50603
Malaysia

Amru Boyce

University of Malaya (UM) - Institute of Biological Sciences ( email )

Kuala Lumpur, 50603
Malaysia

Motior Rahman

University of Malaya (UM) - Institute of Biological Sciences

Kuala Lumpur, 50603
Malaysia

Radzi Abas

University of Malaya (UM) - Department of Chemistry ( email )

Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan 50603
Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan 50603
Malaysia

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