Why 'Redefining Statistical Significance' Will Not Improve Reproducibility and Could Make the Replication Crisis Worse
16 Pages Posted: 21 Nov 2017
Date Written: November 19, 2017
A recent proposal to "redefine statistical significance" (Benjamin, et al. Nature Human Behaviour, 2017) claims that false positive rates "would immediately improve" by factors greater than two and replication rates would double simply by changing the conventional cutoff for 'statistical significance' from P<0.05 to P<0.005. I analyze the veracity of these claims, focusing especially on how Benjamin, et al neglect the effects of P-hacking in assessing the impact of their proposal. My analysis shows that once P-hacking is accounted for the perceived benefits of the lower threshold all but disappear, prompting two main conclusions: (i) The claimed improvements to false positive rate and replication rate in Benjamin, et al (2017) are exaggerated and misleading. (ii) There are plausible scenarios under which the lower cutoff will make the replication crisis worse.
Keywords: replication crisis, p-value, p-hacking, reproducibility, statistical significance
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation