Predicting Public Corruption with Neural Networks: An Analysis of Spanish Provinces
Social Indicators Research, Forthcoming
38 Pages Posted: 27 Nov 2017
Date Written: November 22, 2017
We contend that corruption must be detected as soon as possible so that corrective and preventive measures may be taken. Thus, we develop an early warning system based on a neural network approach, specifically self-organizing maps, to predict public corruption based on economic and political factors. Unlike previous research, which is based on the perception of corruption, we use data on actual cases of corruption. We apply the model to Spanish provinces in which actual cases of corruption were reported by the media or went to court between 2000 and 2012. We find that the taxation of real estate, economic growth, the increase in real estate prices, the growing number of deposit institutions and nonfinancial firms, and the same political party remaining in power for long periods seem to induce public corruption. Our model provides different profiles of corruption risk depending on the economic conditions of a region conditional on the timing of the prediction. Our model also provides different time frameworks to predict corruption up to three years before cases are detected.
Keywords: Corruption, Prediction, Early Warning System, Neural Networks, Self-Organizing Maps
JEL Classification: C45, D73
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation