Tourism Effects on the Environment and Economic Sustainability of Sub-Saharan Africa
International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 221-232, 2016; DOI: 10.1080/13504509.2015.1114976
Posted: 20 Dec 2017 Last revised: 22 Dec 2017
Date Written: June 30, 2016
This paper integrates tourism, economic growth, and environmental issues in a multivariate format. Unlike recent research on this topic, a panel data of selected sample nations of sub-Saharan Africa is adopted by using cointegration and panel regression models. The current research discovers both long-run equilibrium and short-run dynamics between economic growth, tourism, energy use, and carbon emissions in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, tourism and energy use show a highly significant direct impact on economic growth. In addition, tourism, energy use, and economic growth yield a highly significant positive effect on carbon emissions. Dissecting the region into oil producers and non-oil producers further suggests that the economic growth of sub-Saharan Africa has been accomplished by strong growth in tourism and energy use. However, there is highly significant evidence that in oil producing countries, CO2 emissions are directly affected by energy use and economic growth and not by tourism. For non-oil producing countries, tourism and energy use but not economic growth incur a highly significant positive impact on carbon emissions.
Keywords: Time-Series, Economic Sociology, Africa, Tourism, Carbon Emissions, Economic Growth
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