Quality Differentiation, Comparative Advantage, and International Specialization Across Products
CID Research Fellow and Graduate Student Working Paper No. 126
98 Pages Posted: 30 Dec 2017 Last revised: 20 May 2020
Date Written: April 9, 2020
We introduce quality differentiation into a Ricardian model of international trade. We show that (1) quality differentiation allows industrialized countries to be active across the full board of products, complex and simple ones, while developing countries systematically specialize in simple products, in line with novel stylized facts. (2) Quality differentiation may thus help to explain why richer countries tend to be more diversified and why, increasingly over time, rich and poor countries tend to export the same products. (3) Quality differentiation implies that the gains from inter-product trade mostly accrue to developing countries. (4) Guided by our theory, we use a censored regression model to estimate the link between a country's GDP per capita and its export quality. We find a much stronger relationship than when using OLS, in line with our theory.
Keywords: Comparative Advantage, Export Diversification, Nestedness, Product Complexity, Quality Differentiation
JEL Classification: F10, F11, F14
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation