Class Actions, Civil Rights, and the National Injunction

10 Pages Posted: 17 Jan 2018

See all articles by Suzette Malveaux

Suzette Malveaux

University of Colorado Law School

Date Written: 2017


This essay is a response to Professor Samuel Bray’s article proposing a blanket prohibition against injunctions that enjoin a defendant’s conduct with respect to nonparties. He argues that national injunctions are illegitimate under Article III and traditional equity and result in a number of difficulties.

This Response argues, from a normative lens, that Bray’s proposed ban on national injunctions should be rejected. Such a bright-line rule against national injunctions is too blunt an instrument to address the complexity of our tripartite system of government, our pluralistic society and our democracy. Although national injunctions may be imperfect and crude forms of justice, they are better than no justice at all — which for some actions, may be the alternative.

Suggested Citation

Malveaux, Suzette, Class Actions, Civil Rights, and the National Injunction (2017). 131 Harv. L. Rev. F. 56 (2017); CUA Columbus School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2018-1. Available at SSRN:

Suzette Malveaux (Contact Author)

University of Colorado Law School ( email )

401 UCB
2450 Kittredge Loop Road
Boulder, CO 80309
United States

Register to save articles to
your library


Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics