Testing for Similarity in Area-Based Spatial Patterns: Alternative Methods to Andresen's Spatial Point Pattern Test

23 Pages Posted: 6 Feb 2018

See all articles by Andrew Wheeler

Andrew Wheeler

University of Texas at Dallas - School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences

Wouter Steenbeek

Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving NCSR

Martin A Andresen

Simon Fraser University

Date Written: January 28, 2018

Abstract

Andresen’s spatial point pattern test (SPPT) compares two spatial point patterns on defined areal units: it identifies areas where the spatial point patterns diverge and aggregates these local (dis)similarities to one global measure. We discuss the limitations of the SPPT and provide two alternative methods to calculate differences in the point patterns. In the first approach we use differences in proportions tests corrected for multiple comparisons. We show how the size of differences matter, as with large point patterns many areas will be identified by SPPT as statistically different, even if those differences are substantively trivial. The second approach uses multinomial logistic regression, which can be extended to identify differences in proportions over continuous time. We demonstrate these methods on identifying areas where pedestrian stops by the New York City Police Department are different from violent crimes from 2006 through 2016.

Keywords: hot spots, point pattern, pedestrian stops, violent crime, crime analysis

Suggested Citation

Wheeler, Andrew and Steenbeek, Wouter and Andresen, Martin A, Testing for Similarity in Area-Based Spatial Patterns: Alternative Methods to Andresen's Spatial Point Pattern Test (January 28, 2018). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3111822 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3111822

Andrew Wheeler (Contact Author)

University of Texas at Dallas - School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences ( email )

P.O. Box 830688, GR 31
Richardson, TX 75083
United States

Wouter Steenbeek

Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving NCSR ( email )

De Boelelaan 1077a
Amsterdam, 1081 HV
Netherlands

Martin A Andresen

Simon Fraser University ( email )

8888 University Drive
Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6
Canada

HOME PAGE: http://www.sfu.ca/~andresen/

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