Spanning Tests for Markowitz Stochastic Dominance
52 Pages Posted: 2 Feb 2018
Date Written: January 31, 2018
Using properties of the cdf of a random variable defined as a saddle-type point of a real valued continuous stochastic process, we derive first-order asymptotic properties of tests for stochastic spanning w.r.t. a stochastic dominance relation. First, we define the concept of Markowitz stochastic dominance spanning, and develop an analytical representation of the spanning property. Second, we construct a non-parametric test for spanning via the use of an empirical analogy. The method determines whether introducing new securities or relaxing investment constraints improves the investment opportunity set of investors driven by Markowitz stochastic dominance. In an application to standard data sets of historical stock market returns, we reject market portfolio Markowitz efficiency as well as two-fund separation. Hence there exists evidence that equity management through base assets can outperform the market, for investors with Markowitz type preferences.
Keywords: Saddle-Type Point, Markowitz Stochastic Dominance, Spanning Test, Linear and Mixed integer programming, reverse S-shaped utility
JEL Classification: C12, C14, C44, C58, D81, G11
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