Opportunistic Shirking Behavior During Unpaid Overtime
7 Pages Posted: 24 Apr 2018
Date Written: February 25, 2018
We identify the presence of shirking by Major League Baseball umpires during indefinite unpaid overtime, as defined by extra innings. In the presence of new information about expected game length, umpires exert biases in ball and strike calls consistent with opportunistically reducing the likelihood of working additional time. General implications with respect to the effectiveness of salaried workers during unpaid overtime hours are discussed.
Keywords: shirking, personnel economics, baseball, generalized additive models
JEL Classification: JO1, M50
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation