중앙아시아 개발과제와 한·중앙아 신협력 방향 (Analysis on Development Issues in Central Asia and Its Implications for Korea's Development Cooperation)

161 Pages Posted: 26 Mar 2018

See all articles by Joungho Park

Joungho Park

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Boogyun Kang

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

ChiHyun Yun

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Date Written: December 27, 2017

Abstract

Korean Abstract: 본고는 중앙아시아 지역의 개발과제와 한·중앙아 국가간 새로운 협력 방향을 종합적으로 고찰한 연구이다. 먼저 중앙아시아 지역의 개발현황에 대한 체계적인 분석을 바탕으로 중점과제들을 제시했다. 특히 지속가능개발목표(SDGs)의 17개 목표와 169개 세부목표, 그리고 관련 지표들(빈곤과 기아, 보건, 일자리와 이주노동, 무역과 인프라, 에너지, 기후변화와 환경)을 중심으로 중앙아시아 지역의 개발현황을 살펴보고, 중앙아시아 5개국의 신(新)발전전략에 기초하여 여섯 가지(농업개발, 인적자원 개발, 무역원활화, 수자원관리, 재생에너지, 거버넌스) 중점 개발과제를 선정했다.

본 연구 결과를 종합한 정책적 시사점은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 중앙아시아 국가들의 새로운 개발협력 수요를 반영한 접근 전략을 모색해야 한다. 이를 위해 수교 이후 25년 동안 진행된 한국의 중앙아시아 개발협력의 주요 성과와 과제를 종합적으로 평가함과 동시에, 이를 토대로 향후 바람직한 중앙아시아 개발협력

에 대한 정책방향을 수립할 필요성이 있다. 둘째, 중앙아시아 5개국에 대한 차별화된 개발협력 방안을 국가별로 수립하여 추진해나가야 한다. 중앙아시아 5개국의 기본적인 국가역량 및 경제발전 수준(인구, 자원 보유량, 사회경제적 인프라 현황 등), 개발협력 현황, 개발정책의 기본 방향과 중점 과제, 경제 및 산

업정책의 특성 등을 종합적으로 고려하여 국가별로 특화된 개발협력 방안을 마련해야 할 것이다. 셋째, 중앙아시아 개발협력 정책 추진에서 시너지를 창출할 수 있는 새로운 방안 마련이 필요하다. 특히 국제사회의 개발협력 정책 동향, 우리나라의 비교우위와 강점, 중앙아시아 지역의 대내외적 환경 변화에 대한

분석을 토대로 중앙아시아 국가별로 특화된 중점 협력과제를 선정함과 동시에 단계적인 접근을 시도해야 할 것이다.

English Abstract: During the transition period following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian countries underwent economic crisis and the collapse of the Soviet welfare system. In the 2000s, thanks to the income gained by oil and gas exports, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan successfully transformed into upper middle income countries (UMIC). However, the Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan are still eager to lift themselves out from lower middle income country (LMIC) status, while Tajikistan remains a low income country (LIC). There are various views on why Central Asia is lagging behind in economic development. Basically, the area's geographical limitations as an inland region, political and security instability, and its planned economy are some of the key factors that impede the active development of trade, investment, technology and human resources. Moreover, the recent global financial crisis, the Russian economic crisis, and fall in commodity prices are causing the Central Asian economy to struggle.

In this context, this study aims to provide an in-depth analysis on the development challenges in Central Asia, and provide policy suggestions for Korea’s development cooperation with Central Asia. Chapter 2 analyzes the current economic and social status in Central Asia based on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). With additional consideration made for the national development strategies of each country, this study singles out six priority areas for cooperation: agriculture development, human resources development, trade facilitation, water management, renewable energy, and governance. Chapter 3 reviews the current status of development cooperation in Central Asia, illustrated in numbers. Case studies on Germany and Japan, two of the major cooperation partners of Central Asia, are introduced for implications to Korea's development cooperation. Chapter 4 evaluates Korea's development cooperation policy toward Central Asia, and identifies major achievements and key issues to be improved for future cooperation.

This study concludes by providing some policy implications. Firstly, Korea needs to design customized strategies that reflect the demands for new development cooperation in Central Asia. Korea should identify the actual needs of the Central Asian region in accordance with changes in its internal and external situations, and establish measures to improve development effectiveness by building an organic cooperation system among different government departments. Secondly, differentiated development cooperation plans for individual Central Asian countries should be established and implemented. Such factors as basic national competence, economic development status (population, resource, socioeconomic infrastructure, etc.), and the basic directions of national development policies should be considered comprehensively. Thirdly, qualitative improvement in Korea's development cooperation policy is necessary. This can be achieved by expanding private and global partnership, including participation on the part of NGOs and private companies, diversifying development financing through strategic utilization of foreign direct investment and remittances, and establishing field-based policies based on actual development cooperation needs.

Note: Downloadable document is in Korean.

Keywords: Central Asia, Korea, Development Cooperation

Suggested Citation

Park, Joungho and Kang, Boogyun and Yun, ChiHyun, 중앙아시아 개발과제와 한·중앙아 신협력 방향 (Analysis on Development Issues in Central Asia and Its Implications for Korea's Development Cooperation) (December 27, 2017). KIEP Research Paper. Studies in Comprehensive Regional Strategies 17-02, ISBN: 978-89-322-6119-5. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3147505 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3147505

Joungho Park (Contact Author)

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Boogyun Kang

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

ChiHyun Yun

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

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