The Effect of Stereoscopic Three-Dimensional Images on Vocabulary Learning

23 Pages Posted: 18 Apr 2018 Last revised: 3 Oct 2018

Date Written: September 10, 2018


Vocabulary is crucial for language learning (Schmitt, 2000). Therefore, it is an important quest to search for the most effective methods to master vocabulary. This experimental study investigated the effect of stereoscopic three-dimensional (S3D) images on recall and retention of foreign language vocabulary. S3D images, frequently used in virtual reality visualizations, are highly-realistic and differ from non-stereoscopic three-dimensional (NS3D) images in that they provide an impression of depth.

Subjects (N = 82) were exposed to an equal number of carefully designed and randomly distributed NS3D and S3D images and then given productive and receptive tests of vocabulary items that were represented by NS3D and S3D images. Paired t-tests showed NS3D and S3D images to be equally effective for vocabulary recall. Post-hoc tests revealed that lower performance on S3D images occurred only for those subgroups that exhibited discomfort and/or lack of experience with S3D technology.

Keywords: vocabulary learning, stereoscopic 3D images, multimedia, virtual reality, immersive environments

Suggested Citation

Kaplan-Rakowski, Regina, The Effect of Stereoscopic Three-Dimensional Images on Vocabulary Learning (September 10, 2018). Available at SSRN: or

Regina Kaplan-Rakowski (Contact Author)

Valdosta State University ( email )

No Address Available

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