Decoupling the roles of cell shape and mechanical stress in orienting and cueing epithelial mitosis
39 Pages Posted: 4 Apr 2018 Sneak Peek Status: Review CompleteMore...
Distinct mechanisms involving cell shape and mechanical force are known to influence the rate and orientation of division in cultured cells. However, uncoupling the impact of shape and force in tissues remains challenging. Combining stretching of Xenopus laevis tissue with a novel method of inferring relative mechanical stress, we find separate roles for cell shape in orientating division and mechanical stress in cueing division. We demonstrate that division orientation is best predicted by an axis of cell shape defined by the position of tricellular junctions, which aligns exactly with the principal axis of local cell stress rather than the tissue-level stress. The alignment of division to cell shape requires functional cadherin, but is not sensitive to relative cell stress magnitude. In contrast, cell proliferation rate is more directly regulated by mechanical stress, being correlated with relative isotropic stress, and can be decoupled from cell shape when myosin II is depleted.
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