Precise Tuning of Cortical Contractility Regulates Mechanical Equilibrium During Cell Division
55 Pages Posted: 5 Apr 2018 Sneak Peek Status: Review CompleteMore...
The mechanical properties of the cellular cortex drive shape changes during cell division, cell migration and tissue morphogenesis. Cell division provides an ideal paradigm to study cortical mechanics as it has two well defined cortical networks: equatorial and polar. Contractile force generated by the molecular motor myosin II (MII) at the equatorial cortex drives cleavage furrow ingression. Outward pressures created by furrow ingression must be counteracted by MII contractility at the polar cortex. How a mechanical equilibrium between these two networks is maintained is poorly understood. Combining experimental and mathematical approaches, we show a balance between the kinetic properties of MII isoforms allows both rapid force generation at the equatorial cortex and slow tension generation at the polar cortex. Our model suggests myosin contractility in the cortex is locally regulated to tune the magnitude of force generation. This regulatory mechanism will likely be applicable to numerous processes driven by MII contractility.
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