The Effects of School Start Time on Educational Outcomes: Evidence From the 9 O’Clock Attendance Policy in South Korea
42 Pages Posted: 13 May 2018
Date Written: April 10, 2018
This study estimates the causal effects of school start time on sleep time, educational achievement, school life, and emotional well-being. Gyeonggi province, which is the largest province in Korea, has strongly implemented the 9 O'clock Attendance Policy which delays school start times to 9:00 a.m. for all levels of schools since September 2014. Start times of schools in Gyeonggi have dramatically changed after the policy, while only a small number of secondary schools in Seoul have modestly changed their start time during the period. Changes in the above outcomes before-and-after the policy implementation are compared between Gyeonggi and Seoul. The results show that the policy increases sleep time and this is mostly derived by delayed wake-up time. The estimations using administrative national exam data show that the policy enhances math scores of 11th graders and English scores of female students in 9th grade. It also improves emotional well-being, class participation, and self-evaluated health of middle school students.
Keywords: School Start Time, 9 O’Clock Attendance Policy, Sleep Time, Educational Achievement
JEL Classification: I20, I21, I28
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation