북한이탈주민의 신용행태에 관한 연구 (An Analysis of the Credit Behaviors of North Korean Defectors in South Korea)

48 Pages Posted: 20 Apr 2018

See all articles by SeungHo Jung

SeungHo Jung

Bank of Korea - Economic Research Institute

Byong-ki Min

Bank of Korea - Economic Research Institute

Juwon Kim

NICE CB Research Institute

Date Written: April 20, 2018

Abstract

Korean Abstract: 본 연구에서는 북한이탈주민의 신용행태를 분석하기 위해 신용정보 데이터(Credit Bureau data)를 이용하였다. 신용정보 데이터에서 북한이탈주민과 소득수준, 성별, 연령, 신용등급, 신용거래 기간 등이 북한이탈주민과 유사한 국내에서 계속 거주하던 기존주민 대조군을 추출하여 패널 데이터를 구축하였다. 패널모형 분석 결과 북한이탈주민은 대조군에 비해 연체 및 채무불이행 건수가 유의하게 높게 추정되었다. 신용관리 정도의 결정요인에서도 두 집단 간 차이를 나타냈다. 북한이탈주민은 신용거래 기간이 증가함에 따라 대조군에 비해 연체 건수는 더 빠르게 감소하는 반면, 장기 연체인 채무불이행 건수는 더 빠르게 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 북한이탈주민의 경우 금융경험이 축적됨에 따라 신용관리 능력이 향상되기는 하지만, 심각한 채무상환에서의 상환능력은 취약할 수 있음을 의미한다. 또한 대조군은 성별에 따른 연체 건수의 차이가 없는 반면, 장기간 군복무 등으로 비공식경제 참여 경험이 부족할 것으로 예상되는 북한이탈주민 남성은 여성과 비교하여 연체 건수가 유의하게 높은 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 북한이탈주민의 경우 오랜 기간 사회주의 사회에서의 거주 경험으로 인한 금융지식 부족으로 국내 정착 직후 개인 신용관리에 어려움을 겪을 수 있음을 시사한다. 따라서 북한이탈주민에 대한 금융 포용성(financial inclusion) 확대를 위해서는 별도의 금융교육 등 지원정책을 고려할 필요가 있다.

English Abstract: This paper examines the credit behaviors of North Korean defectors living in South Korea, using Korean credit bureau data. We construct individual-level panel data on North Korean defectors and South Korean residents sharing similar characteristics in terms of demographic and economic variables. The results of our panel analyses reveal a significantly higher number of delinquencies and defaults by North Korean defectors compared to the South Korean control group. Subsequent analysis of the credit management determinants also indicates significant differences between the two groups. While the number of delinquencies by North Korean defectors falls more rapidly than that in the control group as their credit histories lengthen, the number of defaults, which are long-term delinquencies, increases more rapidly. This implies that defectors' credit management capacities are improving as they accumulate financial experience, but that their resilience can be weaker in conditions of heavy debt. While the number of delinquencies in the control group does not differ by gender, the North Korean male defectors, who because of their long-term mandatory military service are expected to lack experience in informal economic activities compared to the female defectors, show a significantly higher number of delinquencies. These findings suggest that the lack of financial knowledge stemming from prolonged residence in a socialist society has a negative impact on defectors’ financial adaptation in South Korea. Therefore, in order to increase the degree of financial inclusion for North Korean defectors, additional support, such as financial education, should be considered.

Note: Downloadable document is in Korean.

Keywords: North Korean defectors, CB data, Delinquencies, Defaults, Financial inclusion

JEL Classification: D14, G21, J15, P50

Suggested Citation

Jung, SeungHo and Min, Byong-ki and Kim, Juwon, 북한이탈주민의 신용행태에 관한 연구 (An Analysis of the Credit Behaviors of North Korean Defectors in South Korea) (April 20, 2018). Bank of Korea WP 2018-11. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3165815 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3165815

SeungHo Jung (Contact Author)

Bank of Korea - Economic Research Institute ( email )

110, 3-Ga, Namdaemunno, Jung-Gu
Seoul 100-794
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Byong-ki Min

Bank of Korea - Economic Research Institute ( email )

110, 3-Ga, Namdaemunno, Jung-Gu
Seoul 100-794
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Juwon Kim

NICE CB Research Institute ( email )

(Yeouido-dong) 4, Gukhoe-daero 74-gil
Yeongdeungpo-gu
Seoul
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

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