The Application of the Gross City Development Index (GCD-Index) in Tokyo, Japan

17 Pages Posted: 9 May 2018

See all articles by Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada

Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada

Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala (USAC)

Donghyun Park

Asian Development Bank - Economic Research

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: April 24, 2018


We introduce a new indicator of urbanization called the "The Gross City Development Index (GCD-Index)." The GCD-Index calculation is based on the Concept of city integral sustainable development platform. The platform consists of ten Main Structures, which are (i) Main Structure-1: Economic and Finance (production and consumption of goods and services, income distribution, savings ratio, public and private investment, inflation, and banking; (ii) Main Structure-2: Social (social protection coverage); (iii) Main Structure-3: Politics and Law, (iv) Main Structure-4: Technological; (v) Main Structure-5: Environment; (vi) Main Structure6: Population (labor, education and training, immigration and migration, and unemployment; (vii) Main Structure-7: Infrastructure and Housing (real estate prices and transactions); (viii) Main Structure-8: Income and Poverty in formal and informal sectors; (ix) Main Structure-9: Public Sector (public transportation, security, health, welfare programs, and taxation); (x) Main Structure-10: Others (historical, customs, habits, religion, values, and anthropological). The objective of the GCD-Index is to offer policymakers a new analytical tool to assess urban development from a multidimensional perspective. The GCD-Index is a flexible and straightforward indicator that can be applied to analyze the development of any city. We apply the GCD-Index to study the development of Tokyo, Japan, between 2000 and 2019 to provide a sense of how the index can be used to assess the progress of integrated and sustainable urban development in a megacity.

Keywords: GCD-Index, GDP, Multidimensional Economic Modeling, Tokyo, Econographicology

JEL Classification: O1, O10

Suggested Citation

Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo and Park, Donghyun, The Application of the Gross City Development Index (GCD-Index) in Tokyo, Japan (April 24, 2018). Available at SSRN: or

Mario Arturo Ruiz Estrada (Contact Author)

Universidad San Carlos de Guatemala (USAC) ( email )

Ciencias Economicas, Ciudad Universitaria Zona 12
Guatemala City, Guatemala City

Donghyun Park

Asian Development Bank - Economic Research ( email )

6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550
Metro Manila

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