?אינטרסים ציבוריים כזכויות חוקתיות
Public Interests as Constitutional Rights?

משפטים מא תשע"א

55 Pages Posted: 24 May 2018

See all articles by Oren Gazal-Ayal

Oren Gazal-Ayal

University of Haifa - Faculty of Law

Amnon Reichman

University of Haifa - Faculty of Law

Date Written: June 1, 2011

Abstract

תקציר בעברית: בעקבות המהפכה החוקתית ואופן יישומה על ידי הרשות השופטת, התחדד הצורך לשרטט את הגבול בין פגיעה בזכות יסוד, המוגנת בחוקי היסוד, לבין פגיעה באינטרס ציבורי מוגן. טענתו המרכזית של המאמר היא כי אין להכיר בכל פעולה שלטונית העשויה להגדיל את מספר הפגיעות בחיים, בגוף, בכבוד האדם או בקניין כפגיעה בזכות יסוד. כדי שפעולה תיחשב פוגעת בזכות יסוד, על הטוען להצביע על נשאי זכות מסוימים ומוגדרים מספיק, על ישירות הקשר בין הפעולה לפגיעה ועל רמת ודאות גבוהה שהפעולה אכן תוביל לפגיעה בערך המוגן. תזה זו מושתתת על הצדקות מוסריות להבחנה בין זכות לאינטרס, על הצדקות משפטיות-פוזיטיביסטיות להבחנה זו ועל הצדקות מוסדיות שעניינן היקפה של הביקורת השיפוטית.

English Abstract: What distinguishes an infringement of the constitutional rights (e.g., to life, bodily integrity, human dignity or property) from an infringement of the public interest in defending the underlying values of these rights? In several cases, justices of the Israeli Supreme Court expressed conflicting opinions. For example, in the family unification case, the justices differed on whether legislation restricting entry of Palestinians to Israel for the purpose of family unification should be viewed as a measure for defending the right to life of Israeli citizens from terror attacks that might result from allowing such entrances, or whether the restricting legislation should be viewed as a means for defending the public interest of national security. Similarly, in the Ghanimat case, opinions differed on whether a detention aimed at the prevention of car thefts is necessary for promoting the public interest of fighting crime (i.e., maintaining law and order), or whether it is the constitutional right to property (of car owners) that is at stake. Drawing a line between constitutional rights and public interests is legally significant because constitutional rights and public interests are protected differently. Under the structure of Israel's Basic Laws, the Court is obliged to review whether an infringement of a protected right meets the requirements set forth in the limitation clause, whereas no similar judicial requirement exists when non-constitutional public interests are at stake.

In this essay we will propose criteria for differentiating between a state action (or omission) that infringes on a basic right and an action (or omission) that harms the public interest of protecting the values on which these rights are based. The thrust of the paper is that not every state action that increases the quantity of infringements of the said rights should be viewed as an infringement of constitutional rights. Arguing that a right (rather than a public interest) has been violated requires that the claimant demonstrate a concrete and specific right holder, a direct-enough link between the state action (or omission) and the infringement, and a high degree of probability that the action might indeed cause the specified harm. This thesis is based on moral justifications within liberal political thought, on positivistic justifications rooted in Israeli law, and on institutional justifications for constitutional judicial review (and its scope).

Note: Downloadable document in Hebrew.

Keywords: זכות יסוד, אינטרס ציבורי

Suggested Citation

Gazal-Ayal, Oren and Reichman, Amnon, ?אינטרסים ציבוריים כזכויות חוקתיות
Public Interests as Constitutional Rights? (June 1, 2011). משפטים מא תשע"א, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3174848

Oren Gazal-Ayal (Contact Author)

University of Haifa - Faculty of Law ( email )

Mount Carmel
Haifa, 31905
Israel

HOME PAGE: http://weblaw.haifa.ac.il/en/Faculty/GazalAyal/Pages/default.aspx

Amnon Reichman

University of Haifa - Faculty of Law ( email )

Mount Carmel
Haifa, 31905
Israel

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