Environmental Degradation and Inclusive Human Development in Sub‐Saharan Africa

Sustainable Development , 27(1), pp. 25-34 (2019).

22 Pages Posted: 27 May 2018 Last revised: 10 Feb 2019

See all articles by Simplice Asongu

Simplice Asongu

African Governance and Development Institute

Nicholas M. Odhiambo

University of South Africa

Date Written: January 8, 2018

Abstract

In the light of challenges to sustainable development in the post-2015 development agenda, this study assesses how increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions affect inclusive human development in 44 countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2000-2012. The following findings are established from Fixed Effects and Tobit regressions. First, unconditional effects and conditional impacts are respectively positive and negative from CO2 emissions per capita, CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption and CO2 intensity. This implies a Kuznets shaped curve because of consistent decreasing returns. Second, the corresponding net effects are consistently positive. The following findings are apparent from Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regressions. First, unconditional effects and conditional impacts are respectively negative and positive from CO2 emissions per capita, CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption and CO2 intensity. This implies a U-shaped curve because of consistent increasing returns. Second, the corresponding net effects are overwhelmingly negative. Based on the robust findings and choice of best estimator, the net effect of increasing CO2 emissions on inclusive human development is negative. Policy implications are discussed.

Keywords: CO2 emissions; Sustainable development; Inclusiveness; Environmental policy; Africa

JEL Classification: C52; O38; O40; O55; P37

Suggested Citation

Asongu, Simplice and Odhiambo, Nicholas M., Environmental Degradation and Inclusive Human Development in Sub‐Saharan Africa (January 8, 2018). Sustainable Development , 27(1), pp. 25-34 (2019).. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3175098 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3175098

Simplice Asongu (Contact Author)

African Governance and Development Institute ( email )

P.O. Box 8413
Yaoundé, 8413
Cameroon

Nicholas M. Odhiambo

University of South Africa

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