Unions and Inequality Over the Twentieth Century: New Evidence from Survey Data

95 Pages Posted: 14 May 2018

See all articles by Henry S. Farber

Henry S. Farber

Princeton University; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Daniel Herbst

Princeton University

Ilyana Kuziemko

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Suresh Naidu

Columbia University

Date Written: May 2018

Abstract

It is well-documented that, since at least the early twentieth century, U.S. income inequality has varied inversely with union density. But moving beyond this aggregate relationship has proven difficult, in part because of the absence of micro-level data on union membership prior to 1973. We develop a new source of micro-data on union membership, opinion polls primarily from Gallup (N ≈ 980, 000), to look at the effects of unions on inequality from 1936 to the present. First, we present a new time series of household union membership from this period. Second, we use these data to show that, throughout this period, union density is inversely correlated with the relative skill of union members. When density was at its peak in the 1950s and 1960s, union members were relatively less-skilled, whereas today and in the pre-World War II period, union members are equally skilled as non-members. Third, we estimate union household income premiums over this same period, finding that despite large changes in union density and selection, the premium holds steady, at roughly 15–20 log points, over the past eighty years. Finally, we present a number of direct results that, across a variety of identifying assumptions, suggest unions have had a significant, equalizing effect on the income distribution over our long sample period.

Suggested Citation

Farber, Henry S. and Herbst, Daniel and Kuziemko, Ilyana and Naidu, Suresh, Unions and Inequality Over the Twentieth Century: New Evidence from Survey Data (May 2018). NBER Working Paper No. w24587. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3177947

Henry S. Farber (Contact Author)

Princeton University ( email )

Industrial Relations Section
Firestone Library
Princeton, NJ 08544
United States
609-258-4044 (Phone)
609-258-2907 (Fax)

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Daniel Herbst

Princeton University

Ilyana Kuziemko

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) ( email )

Suresh Naidu

Columbia University ( email )

3022 Broadway
New York, NY 10027
United States

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