Learning Hope and Optimism: Classmate Experiences and Adolescent Development

15 Pages Posted: 30 May 2018

See all articles by Jason M. Fletcher

Jason M. Fletcher

University of Wisconsin - Madison - Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs; Yale University - School of Public Health

Jinho Kim

University of Wisconsin - Madison

Abstract

This paper explores individual and contextual factors related to the development of hopeful attitudes during adolescence using a nationally representative study. A key focus is on the experiences of maltreatment by adults, both for the adolescent and his/her classmates. While all types of individual experiences with maltreatment reduce adolescent hopefulness, maltreatment domains most likely to be visible (i.e physical abuse) by classmates also reduce adolescent hopefulness. This relationship is robust to the inclusion of more general environmental factors through school-level fixed effects, suggesting both a causal explanation and a typically unmeasured spillover effect of violence against children. Other types of maltreatment, such as neglect and material hardship, do not show spillover effects.

Keywords: hope, optimism, maltreatment, peer effects, spillovers

JEL Classification: J24, D9

Suggested Citation

Fletcher, Jason M. and Kim, Jinho, Learning Hope and Optimism: Classmate Experiences and Adolescent Development. IZA Discussion Paper No. 11546. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3185241

Jason M. Fletcher (Contact Author)

University of Wisconsin - Madison - Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs ( email )

1180 Observatory Drive
Madison, WI 53706-1393
United States

Yale University - School of Public Health ( email )

PO Box 208034
60 College Street
New Haven, CT 06520-8034
United States

Jinho Kim

University of Wisconsin - Madison

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