Men. Roots and Consequences of Masculinity Norms

41 Pages Posted: 12 Oct 2018 Last revised: 30 Oct 2018

See all articles by Victoria Baranov

Victoria Baranov

University of Melbourne

Ralph De Haas

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); Tilburg University - Department of Finance

Pauline A. Grosjean

UNSW Business School, School of Economics

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: June 12, 2018

Abstract

Recent research has uncovered the historical roots of gender norms about women and the persistent effect of such norms on economic development. We find similar long-term effects of masculinity norms: beliefs about the proper conduct of men. We exploit a natural historical experiment in which convict transportation in the 18th and 19th century created a variegated spatial pattern of sex ratios across Australia. We show that in areas that were heavily male-biased in the past (though not the present) more Australians recently voted against same-sex marriage, an institution at odds with traditional masculinity norms. Survey data show that this voting pattern is mostly driven by men. Further evidence indicates that these historically male-biased areas also remain characterized by more violence, excessive alcohol consumption, and occupational gender segregation. We interpret these behaviors as manifestations of masculinity norms that emerged due to intense local male-male competition and that persisted over time.

Keywords: Masculinity, sex ratio, natural experiment, cultural persistence, same-sex marriage

JEL Classification: I31, J12, J16, N37, Z13

Suggested Citation

Baranov, Victoria and De Haas, Ralph and Grosjean, Pauline A., Men. Roots and Consequences of Masculinity Norms (June 12, 2018). UNSW Business School Research Paper. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3185694 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3185694

Victoria Baranov

University of Melbourne

Ralph De Haas (Contact Author)

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development ( email )

One Exchange Square
London, EC2A 2JN
United Kingdom

HOME PAGE: www.ebrd.com

Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) ( email )

London
United Kingdom

Tilburg University - Department of Finance ( email )

P.O. Box 90153
Tilburg, 5000 LE
Netherlands

Pauline A. Grosjean

UNSW Business School, School of Economics ( email )

High Street
Sydney, NSW 2052
Australia

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