Going Green: Environmental Protest, Policy and CO2 Emissions, in U.S. States, 1990-2007

Sociological Forum, March 2018

38 Pages Posted: 14 Jun 2018  

John Munoz

Stanford University

Susan Olzak

Stanford University

Sarah Soule

Stanford Graduate School of Business

Date Written: March 1, 2018

Abstract

A major goal of the environmental movement is to conserve or improve the natural environment, but evidence showing that environmental mobilization produces positive environmental outcomes is mixed. This paper addresses a fundamental question about the relative impact of pro-environmental mobilization and the scope of an environmental policy regime on the natural environment. Using panel data at the state level from 1990-2007, we explore how environmental protest and environmental policies independently (or jointly) reduce CO2 emissions in U.S. states. We find that the level of emissions in a state declines in states with increases in pro-environmental protest, net of the effects of the range of environmental policies enacted, gasoline taxes, liberal attitudes, reliance on the fossil fuel industry, number of registered lobbyist organizations, average state product, and population size.

Keywords: environmental movement, protest, climate change, social movmements

Suggested Citation

Munoz, John and Olzak, Susan and Soule, Sarah, Going Green: Environmental Protest, Policy and CO2 Emissions, in U.S. States, 1990-2007 (March 1, 2018). Sociological Forum, March 2018. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3186852

John Munoz (Contact Author)

Stanford University ( email )

Stanford, CA 94305
United States

Susan Olzak

Stanford University ( email )

Stanford, CA 94305
United States

HOME PAGE: http://www.stanford.edu/dept/soc/people/slozak/

Sarah Soule

Stanford Graduate School of Business ( email )

655 Knight Way
Stanford, CA 94305-5015
United States

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