Moderate Inflation

83 Pages Posted: 18 Jun 2004 Last revised: 26 Aug 2022

See all articles by Rudiger Dornbusch

Rudiger Dornbusch

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (Deceased)

Stanley Fischer

Bank of Israel; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Date Written: November 1991


Inflation persists at moderate rates of 15-30 percent in all the countries that successfully reduced triple digit inflations in the 1980s. Several other countries, for example Colombia, have experienced moderate inflation for prolonged periods. In this paper we first set out theories of persistent inflation, which can be classified into those emphasizing seigniorage as a source of government finance and those that emphasize the costs of ending inflation. We then examine the sources and persistence of moderate inflation episodes. Most were triggered by commodity price shocks; they were brief; and very few ended in higher inflation. We then present case studies of eight countries, including three that now suffer from moderate inflation, and four that successfully moved down to single digit inflation rates. We examine the roles of seigniorage, indexation and disindexation, the exchange rate commitment, and monetary and fiscal policy. The evidence suggests that seigniorage plays at most a modest role in the persistence of moderate inflations, and that such inflations can be reduced only at a substantial short-term cost to growth.

Suggested Citation

Dornbusch, Rudiger W. and Fischer, Stanley, Moderate Inflation (November 1991). NBER Working Paper No. w3896, Available at SSRN:

Rudiger W. Dornbusch

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (Deceased)

Stanley Fischer (Contact Author)

Bank of Israel ( email )

P.O. Box 780
Jerusalem, 91907

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

International Monetary Fund (IMF) ( email )

700 19th Street NW
Washington, DC 20431
United States

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