Cellular and Molecular Signalling Mechanisms in Neuronal Injury and Neurodegeneration
8 Pages Posted: 19 Jun 2018
Date Written: February 7, 2018
Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive neurological disorders characterized by death of specific nerve cells, excluding conditions such as ischemia, infection, intoxication, and malignant tumors. While redox imbalance contributes to neural injury, there are also other important crosstalk mechanisms. Despite extensive research, the cause of the neurodisease is unknown in the majority of cases, where as the mechanisms of motor neuron injury are complex and incompletely understood. The mechanistic underpinnings of calcium dysregulation resulting in calpain activation in the acute neurodegenerative diseases such as cerebral ischemia and in the chronic neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis etc include, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity caused by aberrant glutamate signalling, mitochondrial dysfunction and disruption of the neurofilament network. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration should lead to more effective disease-modifying treatments in the future.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Ischemia, Multiple sclerosis, Neurodegeneration and Parkinson's disease
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