Higher-Order Aspects and Context in SUMO

16 Pages Posted: 7 Jul 2018 Publication Status: Accepted

See all articles by Christoph Benzmüller

Christoph Benzmüller

Free University of Berlin (FUB)

Adam Pease

Articulate Software


This article addresses the automation of higher-order aspects in expressive ontologies such as the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology SUMO. Evidence is provided that modern higher-order automated theorem provers like LEO-II can be fruitfully employed for the task. A particular focus is on embedded formulas (formulas as terms), which are used in SUMO, for example, for modeling temporal, epistemic, or doxastic contexts. This modeling is partly in conflict with SUMO's assumption of a bivalent, classical semantics and it may hence lead to counter-intuitive reasoning results with automated theorem provers in practice. A solution is proposed that maps SUMO to quantified multimodal logic which is in turn modeled as a fragment of classical higher-order logic. This way automated higher-order theorem provers can be safely applied for reasoning about modal contexts in SUMO. Our findings are of wider relevance as they analogously apply to other expressive ontologies and knowledge representation formalisms.

Keywords: Expressive Ontologies, Context, Classical Higher-Order Logic, Boolean Extensionality, Quantified Multimodal Logic, Automated Theorem Proving, Relevance Filtering

Suggested Citation

Benzmüller, Christoph and Pease, Adam, Higher-Order Aspects and Context in SUMO (November 28, 2011). Journal of Web Semantics First Look 12_0_8, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3198954 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3198954

Christoph Benzmüller (Contact Author)

Free University of Berlin (FUB) ( email )

Van't-Hoff-Str. 8
Berlin, Berlin 14195

Adam Pease

Articulate Software ( email )

Angwin,, CA
United States

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