Health Risk Assessment on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for Residents in an Oil and Gas Producing Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, 3, 191-206, 2018. doi: 10.4236/ojogas.2018.33017.

16 Pages Posted: 26 Aug 2018

See all articles by Morufu Olalekan Raimi

Morufu Olalekan Raimi

Niger Delta University (NDU) - Department of Community Medicine; Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Allied Health and Environmental Sciences, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria.; Centre for Ecological and Environmental Research Management and Studies, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria.; Saving One Million Lives Program for Results (SOML PforR) Bayelsa State Ministry of Health

Omidiji Adedoyin O

Niger Delta University (NDU) - Department of Geography and Environmental Management

Deinkuro Nimisngha

University of Strathclyde

Oluwaseun E. Odipe

Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Allied Health and Environmental Sciences; Centre for Ecological and Environmental Research Management and Studies, Kwara State University, Nigeria

Awogbami Stephen Olalekan

Ekiti State University

Date Written: July 17, 2018

Abstract

In the study, health risk assessment on heavy metals ingestion was presented through the groundwater drinking pathway for residents in an oil and gas producing area of Rivers State, Nigeria. The level of the ground water pollution was examined, the quality of the borehole and the well water was assessed and the quality of the ground water pathway for the resident in the oil and gas producing area was determined and compared with the national and international standards for the drinking water. This study adopted both the field and laboratory experimental analysis of physical and chemical parameters. Water samples were analyzed for Physico-chemical parameters following acceptable methods to determine the compliance, and the results were analyzed according to drinking water guidelines. Interestingly, the results show that the ground water contained high amounts of turbidity (21.5 NTU, 23.00 NTU and 19.0 NTU in the borehole water and well water), iron (5.3 mg/L in the ground water and 6.98 mg/L in the borehole water) and pHs of all water samples were acidic in the study area. These results show that ground waters including the borehole and the well waters of the study area had acquired reasonable levels of pollution. Whereas, other values were found to be lower or above and corresponding to the acceptable threshold limit values for the drinking water set by consensus standards. A high value of turbidity due to suspended minerals is the cause for milky-white colour. Hence, ground waters in the study area are mainly unsuitable for drinking (containing iron, pH and turbidity). This study clearly advises that some health deteriorating chemicals in the drinking water were at dangerous level and; therefore, the water quality could be a major health menace for residents of the oil and gas producing area of Rivers state. Furthermore, additional researches in medical test to ascertain the health of the people are recommended in this study. Comprehensive groundwater monitoring and adequate treatment should be implemented. The government should carry out clean-up exercise immediately because there is oil spill to prevent infiltration of oil into the groundwater. There is also a need for the continuous monitoring and auditing of water quality in the oil producing areas so as to protect the men and the environment.

Keywords: Health Risk, Heavy Metals, Oil Spill, Ingestion, Groundwater, Rivers State, Nigeria

Suggested Citation

Raimi, Morufu Olalekan and O, Omidiji Adedoyin and Nimisngha, Deinkuro and Odipe, Oluwaseun E. and Olalekan, Awogbami Stephen, Health Risk Assessment on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for Residents in an Oil and Gas Producing Area of Rivers State, Nigeria (July 17, 2018). Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, 3, 191-206, 2018. doi: 10.4236/ojogas.2018.33017., Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3216025

Morufu Olalekan Raimi (Contact Author)

Niger Delta University (NDU) - Department of Community Medicine ( email )

Nigeria
07038053786 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Morufu_Raimi

Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Allied Health and Environmental Sciences, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria. ( email )

Kwara State University
Malete
Nigeria
+2347038053786 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://publons.com/a/1479339/

Centre for Ecological and Environmental Research Management and Studies, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria. ( email )

Malete
Malete
Nigeria
+2347038053786 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://https://afribary.com/authors/morufu-raimi

Saving One Million Lives Program for Results (SOML PforR) Bayelsa State Ministry of Health ( email )

Yenagoa
Yenagoa
Nigeria

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.linkedin.com/in/raimi-morufu-774a1144/

Omidiji Adedoyin O

Niger Delta University (NDU) - Department of Geography and Environmental Management

Amassama
Niger

Deinkuro Nimisngha

University of Strathclyde

16 Richmond Street
Glasgow 1XQ, Scotland G1 1XQ
United Kingdom

Oluwaseun E. Odipe

Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Allied Health and Environmental Sciences ( email )

Kwara State University
Centre for Ecological and Environmental Research
Malete
Nigeria
+2348138032921 (Phone)

Centre for Ecological and Environmental Research Management and Studies, Kwara State University, Nigeria ( email )

Ilorin
Nigeria

Awogbami Stephen Olalekan

Ekiti State University ( email )

Woroko Road
Faculty of The Social Sciences
Ekiti, Bkiti 234
Nigeria

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