Alkaline Dehydration of Anion – Exchanged Human Urine: Volume Reduction, Nutrient Recovery and Process Optimisation

Simha, P., Senecal, J., Nordin, A., Lalander, C., & Vinnerås, B. (2018). Alkaline dehydration of anion–exchanged human urine: Volume reduction, nutrient recovery and process optimisation. Water research, Volume 142, 1 October 2018, Pages 325-336.

12 Pages Posted: 10 Aug 2018

See all articles by Prithvi Simha

Prithvi Simha

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Jenna Senecal

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU)

Annika Nordin

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) - Department of Energy and Technology

Cecilia Lalander

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) - Department of Energy and Technology

Björn Vinnerås

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) - Department of Energy and Technology

Date Written: July 26, 2018

Abstract

In urine-separating sanitation systems, bacterial urease enzymes can hydrolyse urea to ammonia during the pipe transport and storage of urine. The present study investigated whether it was possible to reduce the urine volume without losing the nitrogen as ammonia. A method for stabilising the urine prior to dehydration was developed. Briefly, fresh human urine was stabilised by passage through an anion – exchanger, added to an alkaline media (wood ash or alkalised biochar), and dehydrated. Urine dehydration was investigated at three temperatures: 40, 45 and 50 °C. The influence of various factors affecting the dehydration process was modelled and the rate of urine dehydration was optimised. Results indicated that 75% (v/v) of the urine has to pass through the ion – exchanger for alkaline stabilisation of urine to occur. At all investigated temperatures, the dehydrator accomplished >90% volume reduction of ion – exchanged urine, > 70% N retention and 100% recovery of P and K. To realise high degree of nutrient valorisation, this study proposes combining source – separation of human urine with alkaline dehydration.

Keywords: Decentralised Sanitation, Ion–Exchange, Response Surface Optimisation, Urease, Urea Stabilisation, Urine Dehydration

Suggested Citation

Simha, Prithvi and Senecal, Jenna and Nordin, Annika and Lalander, Cecilia and Vinnerås, Björn, Alkaline Dehydration of Anion – Exchanged Human Urine: Volume Reduction, Nutrient Recovery and Process Optimisation (July 26, 2018). Simha, P., Senecal, J., Nordin, A., Lalander, C., & Vinnerås, B. (2018). Alkaline dehydration of anion–exchanged human urine: Volume reduction, nutrient recovery and process optimisation. Water research, Volume 142, 1 October 2018, Pages 325-336., Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3220327

Prithvi Simha (Contact Author)

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ( email )

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,
Department of Energy and Technology
Uppsala, 750 07
Sweden
702472619 (Phone)
702472619 (Fax)

Jenna Senecal

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) ( email )

S-901 83 Umea
Sweden

Annika Nordin

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) - Department of Energy and Technology ( email )

S-901 83 Umea
Sweden

Cecilia Lalander

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) - Department of Energy and Technology ( email )

S-901 83 Umea
Sweden

Björn Vinnerås

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) - Department of Energy and Technology ( email )

S-901 83 Umea
Sweden

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