32 Pages Posted: 23 Aug 2018 Last revised: 1 Oct 2018

See all articles by Jason J. Czarnezki

Jason J. Czarnezki

Pace University - School of Law

Margot J. Pollans

Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

Sarah Main


Date Written: August 1, 2018


Eco-labels, certifications, and seals of approval serve a variety of functions, including communicating to businesses and consumers the environmental attributes of a particular product or the dangers that product may pose. Eco-labels have the potential to improve environmental outcomes in a number of ways. This Chapter discusses the existing and emerging types of environmental labeling. Part II explores the range of types of eco-labels, laying out common label content and governance schemes (both public and private). Part III explores the challenges that successful labeling schemes must overcome, concluding that the best labels are whole process labels and that eco-labeling is best viewed as one component of a broader regulatory scheme. Part IV briefly concludes that continued work is needed to improve the effectiveness and legitimacy of eco-labeling schemes.

Keywords: eco-label, labels, sustainability, sustainable consumption, consumer, consumer behavior, consumer choice, consumer information, neutral label, environmental label, environmental product declarations, eco-label seal, personal norm, social norm, inconvenience barrier, environmental preference

JEL Classification: K00, K1, K10, K19, K30, K39, Q19, Q50, Q58, Q59

Suggested Citation

Czarnezki, Jason J. and Pollans, Margot J. and Main, Sarah, Eco-Labeling (August 1, 2018). Available at SSRN: or

Jason J. Czarnezki (Contact Author)

Pace University - School of Law ( email )

78 North Broadway
White Plains, NY 10603
United States

Margot J. Pollans

Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University ( email )

78 N. Broadway
White Plains, NY 10603
United States

Sarah Main

Independent ( email )

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