Independent Thinking and Hard Working, or Caring and Well Behaved? Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Gender Identity Norms

42 Pages Posted: 20 Aug 2018

See all articles by Núria Rodríguez-Planas

Núria Rodríguez-Planas

City University New York (CUNY), Queens College; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Anna Sanz-de-Galdeano

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Anastasia Terskaya

Universidad de Alicante - Department of Economic Analysis

Abstract

Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we explore the causal effect of gender-identity norms on female teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors relative to boys in the US. To do so, we exploit idiosyncratic variation across adjacent grades within schools in the proportion of high-school peers' mothers who think that important skills for both boys and girls to possess are traditionally masculine ones, such as to think for him or herself or work hard, as opposed to traditionally feminine ones, namely to be well-behaved, popular or help others.We find that a higher proportion of mothers who believe that independent thinking and working hard matter for either gender reduces the gender gap in risky behaviors, traditionally more prevalent among males, both in the short and medium run. We also find evidence of convergence in the labor market in early adulthood. Short- and medium-run results are driven by a reduction in males' engagement in risky behaviors; long-run results are driven by females' higher annual earnings and lower welfare dependency.

Keywords: gender-identity norms, short-, medium- and long-run effects, risky behaviors and labor market outcomes, Add Health

JEL Classification: I10, I12, J15, J16, J22, Z13

Suggested Citation

Rodriguez-Planas, Nuria and Sanz De Galdeano, Anna and Terskaya, Anastasia, Independent Thinking and Hard Working, or Caring and Well Behaved? Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Gender Identity Norms. IZA Discussion Paper No. 11694. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3234217

Nuria Rodriguez-Planas (Contact Author)

City University New York (CUNY), Queens College ( email )

65-30 Kissena Blvd
Flushing, NY 11367-1597
United States

HOME PAGE: http://https://sites.google.com/site/nuriarodriguezplanas/

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Anna Sanz De Galdeano

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona ( email )

Edifici B - Campus Bellaterra
Barcelona, 08193
Spain

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Anastasia Terskaya

Universidad de Alicante - Department of Economic Analysis ( email )

03080 Alicante
Spain

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