Dynamics of the Gender Gap in High Math Achievement

44 Pages Posted: 22 Aug 2018

See all articles by Glenn Ellison

Glenn Ellison

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Ashley Swanson

Columbia University - Columbia Business School; NBER

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: August 2018

Abstract

This paper examines the dynamics of the gender gap in high math achievement over the high school years using data from the American Mathematics Competition. A clear gender gap is already present by 9th grade and the gender gap widens over the high school years. High-achieving students must substantially improve their performance from year to year to maintain their within-cohort rank, but there is nonetheless a great deal of persistence in the rankings. Several gender-related differences in the dynamics contribute to the widening of the gender gap, including differences in dropout rates and in the mean and variance of year-to-year improvements among continuing students. A decomposition indicates that the most important difference is that fewer girls make large enough gains to move up substantially in the rankings. An analysis of students on the margin of qualifying for a prestigious second stage exam provides evidence of a discouragement effect: some react to falling just short by dropping out of participating in future years, and this reaction is more common among girls.

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Suggested Citation

Ellison, Glenn David and Swanson, Ashley, Dynamics of the Gender Gap in High Math Achievement (August 2018). NBER Working Paper No. w24910. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3236714

Glenn David Ellison (Contact Author)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Department of Economics ( email )

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Ashley Swanson

Columbia University - Columbia Business School ( email )

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NBER ( email )

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