The Long-Run and Gender-Equalizing Impacts of School Access: Evidence from the First Indochina War
74 Pages Posted: 28 Aug 2018 Last revised: 21 May 2020
Date Written: June 20, 2018
Very few studies currently exist on the long-term impacts of schooling policies in developing countries. This paper examines the impacts -- half a century later -- of a mass education program conducted by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the occupied areas during the First Indochina War. Difference-in-difference estimation results suggest that school-age children who were exposed to the program obtained significantly higher levels of education than their peers who were residing in French-occupied areas. The impacts are statistically significant for school-age girls and not for school-age boys. The analysis finds beneficial spillover and inter-generational impacts of education: affected girls enjoyed higher household living standards, had more educated spouses, and raised more educated children. The paper discusses various robustness checks and extensions that support these findings.
Keywords: Educational Sciences, Armed Conflict, Educational Institutions & Facilities, Effective Schools and Teachers, Primary Education
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