Does Time of Day Affect Variety-Seeking?

Posted: 17 Oct 2018

See all articles by Kelly Gullo

Kelly Gullo

Duke University, Fuqua School of Business, Students

Jonah A. Berger

University of Pennsylvania - Marketing Department

Jordan Etkin

Duke University - Fuqua School of Business

Bryan Bollinger

Duke University - Fuqua School of Business

Date Written: September 26, 2018

Abstract

Variety-seeking is a fundamental aspect of choice. But given circadian rhythms in chronobiology, might variety-seeking vary by time of day? Four studies, including an empirical analysis of millions of purchases, demonstrate diurnal variation in variety-seeking. Variety-seeking is lower in the morning than other times of day. People pick less varied flavors of yogurt, for example, when choosing in the morning. Further, the results demonstrate the underlying role of circadian changes in physiological stimulation and arousal. The effect is mediated by a physiological measure of arousal (i.e., body temperature) and moderated by factors that shape physiological arousal (i.e., sunlight and individual differences in circadian preferences). These findings shed light on drivers of variety-seeking and the biological basis of consumer behavior more generally.

Keywords: variety, decision-making, choice, circadian rhythms, arousal

JEL Classification: M30

Suggested Citation

Gullo, Kelly and Berger, Jonah A. and Etkin, Jordan and Bollinger, Bryan, Does Time of Day Affect Variety-Seeking? (September 26, 2018). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3255795

Kelly Gullo

Duke University, Fuqua School of Business, Students ( email )

Durham, NC
United States

Jonah A. Berger

University of Pennsylvania - Marketing Department ( email )

700 Jon M. Huntsman Hall
3730 Walnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6340
United States

Jordan Etkin

Duke University - Fuqua School of Business ( email )

Box 90120
Durham, NC 27708-0120
United States

Bryan Bollinger (Contact Author)

Duke University - Fuqua School of Business ( email )

United States
9196607766 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://bryanbollinger.com

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