Understanding the Value of Fulfillment Flexibility in an Online Retailing Environment

59 Pages Posted: 5 Nov 2018 Last revised: 18 Jan 2021

See all articles by Levi DeValve

Levi DeValve

University of Chicago - Booth School of Business

Yehua Wei

Decision Sciences Area, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University

Di Wu

JD.com American Technologies Corporation

Rong Yuan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Operations Research Center

Date Written: October 13, 2018

Abstract

Problem definition: Fulfillment flexibility, the ability of distribution centers (DCs) to fulfill demand originating from other DCs, can help e-retailers reduce lost sales and improve service quality. As the cost of full flexibility is prohibitive, we seek to understand the value of partially flexible fulfillment networks under simple and effective fulfillment policies.

Academic/Practical Relevance: We propose a general method for understanding the practical value of (partial) fulfillment flexibility using a data-driven model, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations. We then apply this method for a large e-retailer. Our method applies to e-retailers with local fulfillment constraints and customer abandonment, two features that are new to the fulfillment literature. We also introduce a new class of spillover limit fulfillment policies with attractive theoretical and practical features.

Results: We derive optimal fulfillment policies in various settings using theoretical analysis, which provides guidelines on which policies to test in numerical simulations. We then use simulations to estimate for our partner that a proposed fulfillment network with additional flexibility equates to a profit improvement on the order of tens of millions of U.S. dollars.

Managerial Implications: We provide an approach for e-retailers to understand when fulfillment flexibility is most valuable, and find it provides the most benefit for our collaborator when fulfillment costs are high, or centrally held inventory is low. Also, we identify the risks of myopic fulfillment with additional flexibility and demonstrate that an effective spillover limit policy mitigates these risks.

Methodology: Our analysis uses dynamic and stochastic optimization, applied probability, and numerical simulations.

Suggested Citation

DeValve, Levi and Wei, Yehua and Wu, Di and Yuan, Rong, Understanding the Value of Fulfillment Flexibility in an Online Retailing Environment (October 13, 2018). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3265838 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3265838

Levi DeValve (Contact Author)

University of Chicago - Booth School of Business ( email )

5807 S Woodlawn Ave
Chicago, IL 60637

HOME PAGE: http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/levi-devalve

Yehua Wei

Decision Sciences Area, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University ( email )

100 Fuqua Drive
Durham, NC 27708-0204
United States

Di Wu

JD.com American Technologies Corporation ( email )

United States

Rong Yuan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Operations Research Center ( email )

77 Massachusetts Avenue
Bldg. E 40-149
Cambridge, MA 02139
United States

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