Short T Dynamic Panel Data Models with Individual, Time and Interactive Effects
92 Pages Posted: 12 Feb 2020
Date Written: September 2, 2018
This paper proposes a quasi maximum likelihood (QML) estimator for short T dynamic fixed effects panel data models allowing for interactive effects through a multi-factor error structure. The proposed estimator is robust to the heterogeneity of the initial values and common unobserved effects, whilst at the same time allowing for standard fixed and time effects. It is applicable to both stationary and unit root cases. Order conditions for identification of the number of interactive effects are established, and conditions are derived under which the parameters are almost surely locally identified. It is shown that global identification is possible only when the model does not contain lagged dependent variables. The QML estimator is proven to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. A sequential multiple testing likelihood ratio procedure is also proposed for estimation of the number of factors which is shown to be consistent. Finite sample results obtained from Monte Carlo simulations show that the proposed procedure for determining the number of factors performs very well and the QML estimator has small bias and RMSE, and correct empirical size in most settings. The practical use of the QML approach is illustrated by means of two empirical applications from the literature on cross county crime rates and cross country growth regressions.
Keywords: short T dynamic panels, unobserved common factors, quasi maximum likelihood, interactive effects, multiple testing, sequential likelihood ratio tests, crime rate, growth regressions
JEL Classification: C12, C13, C23
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