Do Endowments Matter? Exploring the Gender Dimensions of Poverty in Egypt

36 Pages Posted: 26 Oct 2018

See all articles by Shireen AlAzzawi

Shireen AlAzzawi

Santa Clara University ; Economic Research Forum

Date Written: October 2018


This paper investigates the gender dimensions of poverty in Egypt and examines the factors that contribute to poverty for different household types. Furthermore, it decomposes the poverty differential between household types into a component due to endowments and another due to the return to these endowments. I use data from five Household Income, Expenditure and Consumption Surveys, that span a period of far reaching economic, social and political changes, from 1999 to 2013. Results suggest that female‐headed households were poorer than male‐headed households for all years under study in urban areas; and slightly less poor over part of the period in rural areas. This difference is greater for widowed mothers. Most of the poverty differentials between female‐headed and male‐headed households cannot be explained by differences in endowments in all years. In fact, if female‐headed households had the same endowments as male‐headed households in urban areas they would have been poorer than they already were.

Keywords: discrimination, Egypt, gender poverty, poverty decompositions, widowhood

Suggested Citation

AlAzzawi, Shireen, Do Endowments Matter? Exploring the Gender Dimensions of Poverty in Egypt (October 2018). Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 64, pp. S189-S224, 2018. Available at SSRN: or

Shireen AlAzzawi (Contact Author)

Santa Clara University ( email )

500 El Camino Real
Santa Clara, CA 95053
United States

Economic Research Forum ( email )


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