Monuments of Jihad - The Thought Process of Determining Qibla Orientations by Turks
39 Pages Posted: 25 Nov 2018
Date Written: November 1, 2018
This core research paper analyses 260 orientations of datable mosques from the Turkish period (Seljuk to Ottoman). In a neutral research environment, it validates space archaeology for the application in mosque analysis of early Islam. It aims at identifying the thought process of determining qibla orientations by Turks.
The collateral findings are significant: it turns out that the majority of Turkish mosques appear to constitute Monuments of Jihad. They are oriented toward battlefields.
Likewise, when Ottoman mosques were oriented toward Mecca (in less than 2% of the data) , the dates of these mosques appear to match with dates of conflicts over Mecca. 75% of the mosques in the data set can be attributed to specific conflict targets.
Mosque orientations open up an entirely new paradigm for scientifically reproducible core research in Islam and in particular in early Islam.
Keywords: Islam, qibla, mosque architecture
JEL Classification: Z12
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation