Privacy-Enhancing Technologies for Internet Commerce

16 Pages Posted: 19 Sep 2002

See all articles by L. Jean Camp

L. Jean Camp

Indiana University Bloomington - School of Informatics and Computing

Carlos A. Osorio

Yuken Impact Research Lab; Deusto Business School

Date Written: August 2002


We examine privacy-enhancing technologies based on the consistency of the business plans, technology, stated objectives, and the concept of privacy as embedded in the technologies. Three distinct trust models result from the three distinct concepts of privacy: a right of autonomy, a right to seclusion and a right to property. We use these trust models to segment the privacy market and classify the privacy-enhancing technologies. The Anonymizer and Zero Knowledge's Freedom were built as technologies to enhance autonomy, while Privada Control, iPrivacy, and Incogno SafeZone are built to provide seclusion. Microsoft's Passport is built with an assumption of privacy as a tradable property right.

Security, privacy, and authentication are intertwined and sometimes confused in the privacy market. We argue that the creation of new trusted third party is not an effective strategy. In the case of creating a trusted third party, autonomy-based products have been more successful than seclusion-based products, despite the wider array of services offered by seclusion services.

Keywords: trust, security, privacy, e-commerce

Suggested Citation

Camp, L. Jean and Osorio-Urzua, Carlos Alberto, Privacy-Enhancing Technologies for Internet Commerce (August 2002). Available at SSRN: or

L. Jean Camp (Contact Author)

Indiana University Bloomington - School of Informatics and Computing ( email )

901 E 10th St
Bloomington, IN 47401
United States

Carlos Alberto Osorio-Urzua

Yuken Impact Research Lab ( email )

Monsenor Sotero Sanz 161
Santiago, RM 7500007


Deusto Business School ( email )

Hermanos Aguirre Kalea, 2
Bilbao, Euskadi 20012

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