The Sources of Water Supply, Sanitation Facilities and Hygiene Practices in Oil Producing Communities in Central Senatorial District of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
MOJ Public Health. 2018;7(6): 337‒345
9 Pages Posted: 19 Dec 2018
Date Written: October 2018
Background: It has been estimated that 100 million Nigerians still lack basic sanitation facilities and 63 million also do not have access to portable drinking water and as many as 80% of all diseases worldwide are related to unsafe water as well as poor environmental hygiene. Most infectious, diseases are caused by living organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or parasitic worms, and a disease is transmitted by the passing of these organisms from one person’s body to another or through intermediate hosts. The World Bank reports that 30% of the total disease burden in developing countries results from contamination at the household level and that 75% of life years lost within this 30% are due to lack of good water supply and sanitation and the prevalence of risky hygiene behaviour. This study aimed to assess the sources of water supply, sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in oil producing communities in Central Senatorial District of Bayelsa State.
Materials and method: The study designs adopted for this research work were quantitative analysis and descriptive research method. The study population covered all housing units in the randomly selected communities in the central senatorial district of Bayelsa state. The 400 sample size for housing units was determined using the Taro Yamane formula, and systematic sampling method was used with a sampling interval of three. A 26-item administered closed-ended structured questionnaire was used. Data was collected from 296 out of 400 questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics with frequency counts and simple percentages using SPSS.
Results: The result identified multiple sources of water supply which includes rain, river/stream, pipe borne, borehole and hand-dug well with borehole being the major source (91%). The major toilet facility used was the flush toilet (45%) and majority of residents clean their toilet once weekly (60%), however, about half of the residents (51%) practice unsafe excreta disposal. Hygiene practices such as bathing occurred among all resident at least once daily and hand washing was frequent after toilet visit (73%) but not before eating (35%).
Conclusion: Water supply was seen to be relatively adequate, but its quality was poor, necessitating treatment. Unsafe excreta disposal is still widely practiced. Critical hand washing practice was still poor amongst residents. The State and Local Government including Oil companies in oil producing communities in Central Senatorial District should provide adequate portable water and sanitation facilities in public places with hygiene enlightenment campaign.
Keywords: environmental sanitation, water supply, excreta, health, houses, hygiene, critical
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